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      水輪機各種參數術語與符號是意思

      1 技術改造:采取技術措施,對水電站設備或設施進行改進,更換或改建,以提高其先進性,合理性,經濟性和可靠性,稱作技術改造.2 更新改造:對機組設備全部或局部更換新設備,裝機容量不變,由于性能改善,效率提高使年發電量增加,稱作更新改造.3 增容改造:對機組設備全部或局部進行技術改造,裝機容量加大,由于性能改善,效率提高和容量加大使年發電量增加,稱作增容改造.擴裝機組也是增容改造的方式之一.4 減容改造:對機組設備全部或局部進行技術改造,裝機容量減少,由于性能改善,效率提高而使年發電量增加,稱作減容改造.5 輸出功率(或稱出力)Pout或P:指水輪機主軸輸出的機械功率,或發電機出線端輸出的電功率.6 額定功率(或稱額定出力)Pr 或PN :在額定水頭和額定轉速下水輪機能連續發出的******功率為其額定功率,常用符號為Pr ;在額定電壓,額定轉速和額定功率因數下發電機能連續發出的功率為發電機的額定功率,常用符號為PN . 7 額定水頭Hr :水輪機在額定轉速下,輸出額定功率時的***小凈水頭.8 額定轉速nr :水輪發電機組按水電站設計選定的穩態轉速.9 飛逸轉速nR :水輪機處于失控狀態,軸端負荷力矩為零時的****轉速.10 額定流量Qr :水輪機在額定水頭和額定轉速下,輸出額定功率時的流量.11 水輪機(真機或模型)轉輪公稱直徑D1:對于混流式水輪機是指葉片進水邊正面與下環相交處的直徑;對于軸流式和貫流式水輪機是指與葉片軸線相交處的轉輪室內徑;對于水斗式水輪機是指轉輪節圓直徑.12 通流部件:從水輪機引水室進口到泄水部件出口,凡有水流通過的部件均屬通流部件.13 空化(過去曾用"氣蝕"):空化是當流道中局部壓力下降至臨界壓力(一般接近汽化壓力)時,水中氣核成長為氣泡,氣泡的聚積,流動,分裂,潰滅過程的總稱.14 空蝕(過去曾用"氣蝕損壞"):由于空化造成的通流部件材料損壞.15 磨蝕:在含沙水流條件下,水輪機通流部件表面受空蝕和泥沙磨損聯合作用所造成的材料損壞.

      16 空化系數(過去曾用"氣蝕系數")σ:表征水輪機空化發生條件和性能的無因次系數.17 吸出高度Hs :水輪機規定的空化基準面至尾水位的高度.

      1 Technical Renovation: Technical measures shall be taken to improve, replace or rebuild hydropower station equipment or facilities so as to enhance its advancedness, rationality, economy and reliability, and call it technological reformation.2 Renewal and renovation: Replacement of new equipment, the same installed capacity, due to improved performance, increased efficiency to increase annual power generation, known as the renovation .3 capacity transformation: all or part of the unit equipment technological transformation, increased installed capacity, due to improved performance, Increased efficiency and increased capacity to increase annual power generation, known as capacity expansion transformation. Expansion unit is also one of the ways to capacity transformation .4 capacity reduction transformation: all or part of the unit equipment technological transformation, reduced installed capacity, due to performance Improve the efficiency and increase annual power generation, known as capacity reduction transformation.5 output power (or output power) Pout or P: the mechanical power output of the turbine shaft, or the generator output power output terminal.6 rated power ( Or rated output) Pr or PN: at rated head and rated speed turbine power continuous issued by the power of its rated power, common symbol Pr; rated power , Rated speed and rated power factor generator continuous power is the generator rated power, common symbol PN 7. 7 Rated head Hr: Turbine at rated speed, the rated power output of small water head. 8 Rated speed nr: Steady speed selected by Hydro-generator set according to design of hydropower station. 9 Runaway speed nR: **** speed when turbine is out of control and shaft load moment is zero .10 Rated flow rate Qr: Turbine Flow at rated power at rated head and rated speed 11 Nominal diameter of turbine (true machine or model) runner D1: For Francis turbine Diameter at the intersection of the front and lower ring of the inlet side of the vane; for shaft Flow and cross-flow turbine is the runner chamber diameter intersecting the blade axis; for a bucket-type turbine it refers to the pitch circle diameter of the runner.12 Flow-through components: From the inlet of the turbine diversion chamber to the outlet of the drain, where Cavitation (historically "cavitation"): Cavitation is the process by which cavitation occurs when localized pressure in the runner drops to a critical pressure (generally close to the vapor pressure) It is the general term for the bubbles, the accumulation of bubbles, the flow, the division, and the collapse process.14 Cavitation (used to be "cavitation damage" in the past): The material of flow-through parts due to cavitation is damaged.15 Abrasion: Under the water turbine flow through the parts surface erosion and sediment damage caused by the combined effect of damage to the material.
      16 cavitation coefficient ("cavitation coefficient" used in the past) σ: dimensionless factor characterizing the conditions and performance of turbine cavitation 17 suction height Hs: altitude of the turbine from the cavitation plane to the tailwater level.

      艳妇厨房激情

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